By laam Sakinah rules, we mean how to pronounce the Arabic letter Laam (ل) with no vowel, written as (ل) without any diacritics or with the Sukoon sign in the Mushaf (A small head of ح above the letter). It is used at any of the points: starting, center, or end of the word. At times, it is used as an additional letter that is added to the word like ٱلْمُلْك and sometimes it is used as a part of a word that can’t be detached from it like الَّذِي. To understand how we read this letter differently depending on the condition, it is important to learn the different Laam Sakinah rules.
After covering the rules of Meem Sakinah in this blog, It is time now to learn more about the Laam Sakinah rules. There are five rules of Laam Sakinah in the Quran, which are explained below with the help of examples. All these kinds of Laam Sakinah rules adhere to two rules: Izhaar and Idghaam.
Laam Tareef (لام التعريف) is the definite article of Arabic alif-laam (الـ) added at the beginning of the common nouns to make them clearly defined or proper nouns. It comes after Hamzatul Wasl (همزة وصل) – an alif (ا) with the letter (ص) written over it (ٱ). However, we don’t place (ص) on top of it in writing since we know it is there, and no word in the Arabic language begins with alif (only alif with hamza (أ)).
It is added before the Laam Tareef to help us know how to pronounce it. If it comes in the beginning, it is read like we are starting from it, and if there is some other letter before it, we drop it and connect it with the previous letter, e.g., we read ٱَلاَرْض as “Al-ardh” when it starts from Hamzatul Wasl, and we drop it and join it with the previous letter like وَٱلْاَرْض recited as “Wal-ardh”.
Laam Tareef is divided into two types:
When any of the Moon letters or Huroof Al-qamariyya (هـ ,ﻱ ,ﻭ ,ﻡ ,ﻙ ,ﻕ ,ﻑ ,ﻍ ,ﻉ ,ﺥ ,ﺡ ,ﺝ ,ﺏ ,أ) follows the Laam, it is read with Izhaar meaning obviousness. It is called Laam Qamariyya. For instance, ٱلْحَجّ is read as “Al-Hajj” and ٱَلْبَيْت as “Al Bayt”.
Some examples of Huroof Al-Qamariyya from Al-Quran are as follows:
When any of the Sun letters or Huroof Al-Shamsiyya (ﻥ ,ﻝ ,ﻅ ,ﻁ ,ﺽ ,ﺹ ,ﺵ ,ﺱ ,ﺯ ,ﺭ ,ﺫ ,ﺩ ,ﺕ) follows the Laam, it is read with Idghaam meaning merging but without the Ghunna (nasal sound). It is called Laam Shamsiyya. For instance, ٱلنَّعِيمِ is read as “An-naeem” and الرُّوحُ as “Ar-rooh”.
Some examples of Huroof Al-Shamsiyya from the Quran are as follows:
For more information, check our blog illustrating the rules of Laam Shamsiya and Laam Qamariya in detail.
The second type of the Laam Sakinah rules is the one that comes with nouns. Laam Sakin in noun appears within the noun (Ism) and is always read with Izhaar. Examples include ٱَلْمُلْك, سُلْطَان, اللَّيْلَ.
Laam Sakin in verb appears in the center or end of the verb. We read it with Izhaar if a letter comes after Laam Sakin in the verb, leaving out Laam and Raa. An example of this includes قُل أَنْتُم. And when Laam and Raa come after Laam Sakin in the verb, we read it with Idghaam. The example for this type includes أَقُل لَّكُم ، قُل رَّبِّ.
If Laam Sakin appears at the end of the particle and if the successive letter (first letter of the second word) is Laam or Raa, we do Idghaam, i.e., the Laam merged into the following letter without Ghunna, such as هَل لَّكُم ، بَل رَّب. We use the Izhaar rule if any letter appears after the particles, except for Laam and Raa. An example of this includes هَلْ أنْتُم ، بَلْ هُم.
The last type of all the Laam Sakinah rules is the one in the commanding verb. If (ثم، و، ف) appears in front of Laam Sakin in the present tense verb, usually beginning with ي, this Laam Sakin is Laam in the commanding verb. Example include ثُمَّ لْيَقْضُ ، وَلْيُوفُوا.
It is hoped that we have clearly explained the Laam Sakinah rules in detail, not to mention its definition. Learning these rules is crucial as the Quran is Allah’s book and deserves to be recited correctly. The importance becomes evident with this verse: “… And recite the Quran with measured recitation. (Al-Muzzammil: 4)
To help you with this, Riwaq Al Azhar presents the Quran with Tajweed Course, which enables students to study and learn all the rules defined for Quran recitation, including the Laam Sakinah rules. So, without further hesitation, join the course and start this rewarding endeavor now!