Before we dive into the practice and comprehension of the meem sakinah rules, qualities and letters to remember, we should consider one thought of the day to ensure that our learning and understanding of the philosophical discourse bestowed upon us by the Quran, when reciting with the meem sakinah rules, is rewarding, making recitation sweet to the heart in this world and benefiting with Janaah in Hereafter.
Allah’s expression, not His creation, is the noble Qur’an. It’s a twenty-three-year-old guided scripture revealed to the blessed prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The only book in which reciting it is both a form of worship and a source of reward. There is no other book or speech that fits this description. The Qur’an is a unique text that has been mastered by thousands of people, memorized with in the realms of hearts. As quoted by the Apostle of Allah (PBUH), the benefits for reading Quranic Scriptures turns out to be:
وَعَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى الْأَشْعَرِيِّ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: “مثل الْمُؤمن الَّذِي يقْرَأ الْقُرْآن كَمثل الْأُتْرُجَّةِ رِيحُهَا طِيبٌ وَطَعْمُهَا طِيب” (مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ)
Abu Musa al-Ash’ari reported: the Apostle of Allah (PBUH) said, “A believer who recites the Qur’an is like a citron whose fragrance is sweet and whose taste is sweet” (Mishkat al Masabih)
When does the scent, the Quranic sweetness inculcate in your soul? The time when the Quran is recited in its entirety, with a set of rules of reading, for the proper pronunciation of the letters with all of their qualities and the application of different traditional recitation modes (Qira’at). Every Muslim is expected to recite the Qur’an correctly to the best of his ability; with pace to appreciate the charisma of the scriptures – being of holy nature – and maximum clarity. Moving on to the recital, we will study meem saakina tajweed rules to the best of our abilities.
With every word having different point of articulation and attributes, meem “م” when carries a sukoon while stopping on it or proceeding with the ayah. Notice the meem sakinah examples in the following surah:
The mouth, specifically the lips, create the sound meem when closed on top of each other, hence the ahkam related to it are known as “shafawiyah” meaning “from the lips,” which is narrated as “شفتين” in Arabic.
The rules of silent meem are three in number, and they are easy to remember because they correspond to the actual number of alphabets in the letter “م” when written in an open format “ميم”.
The most notable rule of meem sakinah rules is the idgham shafawi, which means the labial merging from one letter into the other.
Like all the rules of reading Quran with tajweed, the hokum (rule) prevails when different type of words occur after the mentioned letter meem, with making a prompt to the mind, that the merging of meem is eminent into the other word when the latter is same like it, signified with a harakah, thus giving us the definition which reads as “When a non-voweled meem is preceded by a voweled meem (meem with harakah), the meem sakinah is merged into the voweled meem, resulting in one stressed meem (meem with shaddah)”.Idgham Shafawi letters include only the letter meem, which can be identified in the examples below:
This idgham is also known as idgham mithlain sagheer because the two letters, one silent and the other with harakah, have the same makhraj and sifah, which means mithlain -“similar to each other”, and the word sagheer emphasizes their states, as the first letter is not voweled and the latter is.
Food for thought: Notice how the vowelless meem succumbs to the meem with the harakah in the other letter, regardless of the fact that they are both the same in visibility, they have different sifah (attribute) on their own, but when they become one and align, making contact with each other and holding it tight, a sound known as “gunnah” (nasal sound) is made, while also providing a base for the first meem to attach to other in line, and providing a voice. With the beauty in the ahkam (rules) of Quranic Verses, the person reciting is bound to receive the message of uplifting others, confining into one and deciding on unity which in turns gives a melodious life.
The second rule of meem sakinah rules is Ikhfa which refers to concealing the labial movement of the meem pronouncement, which occurs when the meem sakinah is preceded by “ب”, resulting in the closure of the lips during the recitation of the meem sakinah, prolonging it with a gunnah – and opening it as a transitional note for pronouncing ba‘.
Following is one of the ikhfa shafawi examples in Qur’an, from the same surah al-Fiel mentioned above with illustrations for meem sakinah:
How many ikhfa shafawi letters can you count on? It is just a single letter “ب”, making it simple for the reader to remember and read. When reciting from the Mushaf al Misri, the letters are marked with an eloquent green color, indicating the existence of ikhfa shafawi and allowing the gunnah to be executed on two counts.
Consider the following while reciting for ikhfa shafawi: Each alphabet in Arabic has an origin for pronouncement, the source of articulation, as a result of which all alphabets are divided into different parts based on their makharij (points of articulation). The alphabet ba’ is located at the edge of the lips, making it a companion to other alphabets such as waw and fa’ – the points of articulation are the same, making the sifah simple to mix with.
Thus, when making signified gunnah in ikhfa shafawi, one should be careful not to combine the sounds of fa’ and waw into meem, as these are izhaar shafawi alphabets that need clarification when reading. Izhaar Shafawi, our next topic of discussion, will help you organize your thoughts for the following note.
Izhaar shafawi meaning – the interpretation contributes to an understanding of the concept, as an alphabet can be recited with stress on its own (idgham), blending with other voices (ikhfa), or clarification on its own basis, as is the case in izhaar – which means to clearly enunciate the word without mingling the voice with any other voweled or silent letters.
Paying attention to the letter listed in the two hokum mentioned above, it would be a simple grasp to understand how the izhaar operates on all the other hurufs other than meem and ba’, which remain to be 26 letters, when occurring after the silent meem, would have no effect, no gunnah or nasal sound to be made, and all to be uttered with clarity and conciseness.
Here’s a short rundown of the article’s main takeaways, broken down into digestible chunks:
May we help our souls by reciting the Quran every day to remember its teachings and instill the right values in our lives! Help yourself learn the rules through one-on-one instruction from acclaimed and trusted platforms with videos laded with simple learning and prompt attentive information to improve your learning with best online tajweed course, where you can learn Quran with tajweed online and more about meem sakinah rules – and have a blessed soul. Best wishes on your path to eternal benediction! Amen.